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CCBOM PATHWAY RESOURCES

Please see the sections below to access resources from the CCBOM 2022 Pathways course.

Part 4.0 THE DIVERSE TOXICODYNAMICS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

4.1 Peripheral Neurons (neuronopathy, axonopathy, myelinopathy)

Kulkantrakorn K. “Pyridoxine-induced sensory ataxic neuronopathy and neuropathy: Revisited.” Neurological Sciences 35.11 (November 2014): 1827-1830. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
  
Toledano M. “Toxin-induced Neuropathies.” Neurologic Clinics 38.4 (November 2020): 749-763.
CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
  
Spencer PS. “Neuroprotein targets of γ-diketone metabolites of aliphatic and aromatic solvents that induce central-peripheral axonopathy.” Toxicologic Pathology 48.3 (April 2020): 411-421.
CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
  

Román GC. “An epidemic in Cuba of optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, peripheral sensory neuropathy and dorsolateral myeloneuropathy.” Journal of the Neurological Sciences 127.1 (December 1994): 11-28.

CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
  
Morgan JP. “The Jamaica ginger paralysis.” Journal of the American Medical Association 248.15 (October 15, 1982): 1864-1867. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
  
Parascandola J. “Pharmacology and public health: The Jamaica ginger paralysis episode of the 1930s.” Pharmacy in History 36.3 (1994): 123-131. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE

4.2 Synaptic Neurotransmission (cholinergic pathways)

Fukuto TR. “Mechanism of action of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides.” Environmental Health Perspectives 87 (July 1990): 245-254.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
     
    Lionetto MG, Caricato R, Calisi A, Giordano ME, Schettino T. “Acetylcholinesterase as a biomarker in environmental and occupational medicine: New insights and future perspectives.” BioMed Research International2013:321213. doi: 10.1155/2013/321213 
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE

    Leung MCK, Meyer JN. “Mitochondria as a target of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides: Revisiting common mechanisms of action with new approach methodologies.” Reproductive Toxicology 89 (October 2019): 83-92. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.07.007. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Silman I, Sussman JL. “Acetylcholinesterase: How is structure related to function?” Chemico-Biological Interactions 175.1-3 (September 2008): 3-10.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Jett DA. “Neurotoxic pesticides and neurologic effects.” Neurologic Clinics 29.3 (August 2011): 667-677.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Mackenzie Ross S, McManus IC, Harrison V, Mason O. “Neurobehavioral problems following low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic and meta-analytic review.” Critical Reviews in Toxicology 43.1 (January 2013): 21-44.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE

    4.3 Special Senses (visual, auditory, olfactory)

    Doty RL. “Neurotoxic exposure and impairment of the chemical senses of taste and smell.” pages 299-324 in M. Lotti and M.L. Bleecker, eds. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 131 (Occupational Neurology). Edinburgh/New York: Elsevier, 2015.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
     
    Gagnaire F, Langlais C. “Relative ototoxicity of 21 aromatic solvents.” Archives of Toxicology 79.6 (June 2005): 346-354.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
     
    Le TN, Straatman LV, Lea J, Westerberg B. “Current insights in noise-induced hearing loss: A literature review of the underlying mechanism, pathophysiology, asymmetry, and management options.” Journal of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 46.41 (May 2017): 1-15. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Johnson A-C, Morata TC. Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Hearing Impairment. 142. The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals NR 2010;44(4) University of Gothenburg: Geson Hylte Tryck, 2009.   CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE

    4.4 Movement Disorders (parkinsonism, ataxia, tremor)

    Gillen HW. “Occupational neurotoxicology and movement disorders: A historical perspective.” Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 4.1 (March 1995): 63-66.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Ganguly J, Kulshreshtha D, Jog M. “Mercury and movement disorders: The toxic legacy continues.” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2021 published online June 24, 2021:1-9.  doi: 10.1017/cjn.2021.146
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 

     
    Blanc PD. “The early history of manganese and the recognition of its neurotoxicity, 1837-1936.” NeuroToxicology 64 (January 2018): 5-11.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Caudle WM, Guillot TS, Lazo CR, Miller GW. “Industrial toxicants and Parkinson’s disease.” NeuroToxicology 33.2 (March 2012): 178-188.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Fonnum F, Lock EA. “Cerebellum as a target for toxic substances.” Toxicology Letters 112-113 (March 2000): 9-16. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE


    4.5 Neuroaffective and Neurocognitive Effects

    Dumont MP. “Psychotoxicology: The return of the mad hatter.” Social Science and Medicine 29.9 (September 1989): 1077-1082.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Stollery BT. “Cognitive neurotoxicology: A luxury or necessity?” Neurotoxicology and Teratology 18.4 (July-August 1996): 359-364.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Singer R. “Neurotoxicity in neuropsychology.” Pages 813-838 in M.R. Schoenberg and J.G. Scott, eds. The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology. New York: Springer, 2011. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE

    Part 5.0 SOME NOTEWORTHY OCCUPATIONAL NEUROTOXICANTS

    5.1 The “Heavy metals” (Pb, Hg, Tl) and other elements (Mn, As, Al, Sn, Te)

    Barbosa F, Tanus-Santos J, Gerlach RF, Parsons PJ. “A critical review of biomarkers used for monitoring human exposure to lead: Advantages, limitations, and future needs.” Environmental Health Perspectives 113.12 (December 2005): 1669-1664. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Gonick HC. “Lead-binding proteins: A review.” Journal of Toxicology 2011.686050 (2011):1-10. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
     
    Karacić V, Prpić-Majić D, Telisman S. “The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and ‘free’ erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) in lead-exposed individuals.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 47.2 (January 1980): 165-177. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Charlton N, Wallace KL. “American College of Medical Toxicology position statement on post-chelator challenge urinary metal testing.” Journal of Medical Toxicology 6.1 (March 2010): 74-75. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    American College of Medical Toxicology. “ACMT recommends against use of post-chelator challenge urinary metal testing.” Journal of Medical Toxicology 13.4 (December 2017): 352-354. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Jang DH, Hoffman RS. “Heavy metal chelation in neurotoxic exposures.” Neurologic Clinics 29.3 (August 2011): 607-622. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Crinnion WJ. “The benefits of pre- and post-challenge urine heavy metal testing: Part 1.” Alternative Medicine Review 14.1 (March 2009): 3-8. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Crinnion WJ. “The benefits of pre- and post-challenge urine heavy metal testing: Part 2.” Alternative Medicine Review 14.2 (June 2009): 103-108. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Eiró LG, Ferreira MKM, Frazão DR, Aragão WAB, Souza-Rodrigues RD, Fagundes NCF, Maia LC, Lima RR. “Lead exposure and its association with neurological damage: Systematic review and meta-analysis.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28 (July 2021): 37001–37015. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       

    Castellino N, Castellino P, and Sannolo N. eds. Inorganic Lead Exposure – Metabolism and Intoxication. Boca Raton: Lewis, 1995.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Skerfving S, Bergdahl IA. “Lead.” pages 599-643 in GF Nordberg, BA Fowler, M Nordberg, LT Friberg, eds. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. 3rd ed. Amsterdam/New York: Elsevier, 2007. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, August, 2020. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Syversen T, Kaur P. “The toxicology of mercury and its compounds.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 26.4 (October 2012): 215-226. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Spaeth KR, Tsismenakis AJ, Kales S.N. Heavy Metals: A Rapid Clinical Guide to Neurotoxicity and Other Common Concerns. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2010. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Ross WD, Gechman AS, Sholiton MC, Paul HS. “Need for alertness to neuropsychiatric manifestations of inorganic mercury poisoning.” Comprehensive Psychiatry 18.6 (November-December 1977): 595-598. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Berlin M, Zalups RK, Fowler BA. “Mercury.” pages 675-729 in GF Nordberg, BA Fowler, M Nordberg, LT Friberg, eds. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. 3rd ed. Amsterdam/New York: Elsevier, 2007. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Harada M. “Minamata disease: Methylmercury poisoning in Japan caused by environmental pollution.” Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25.1 (1995): 1-24. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Hachiya N. “The history and the present of Minamata Disease – Entering the second half a century.” Japan Medical Association Journal 49.3 (March 2006): 112-118. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Tsuda T, Yorifuji T, Takao S, Miyai M, Babazono A. “Minamata disease: Catastrophic poisoning due to a failed public health response.” Journal of Public Health Policy 30.1 (April 2009): 54-67. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Bakir F, Damluji SF, Amin-Zaki L, Murtadha M, Khalidi A, Al-Raawi NY, Tikriti S, Dhahir HI, Clarkson TW, Smith JC, Doherty RA. “Methylmercury poisoning in Iraq.” Science 181.4096 (July 20, 1973): 181-24 CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Harada M, Fujino T, Oorui T, Nakachi S, Nou T, Kizaki T, Hitomi Y, Nakano N, Ohno H. “Followup study of mercury pollution in indigenous tribe reservations in the Province of Ontario, Canada, 1975-2002.” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 74.4 (April 2005): 689-697. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Mosa A, Duffin J. “The interwoven history of mercury poisoning in Ontario and Japan.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 189.5 (February 6, 2017): E213-E215. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Ceccatelli S. Aschner M. eds. Methylmercury and Neurotoxicity. New York: Springer, 2012. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       

    Fergurson EB. “The man who shot the man who shot Lincoln.” American Scholar 78.2 (Spring 2009): 42-51.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       

    Osorio-Rico L, Santamaria A, Galván-Arzate S. “Thallium toxicity: General issues, neurological symptoms, and neurotoxic mechanisms.” pages 345-353 in M. Aschner and L.G. Costa, Neurotoxicity of Metals (Advances in Neurobiology 18). New York: Springer, 2017.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Liu H, Liao G. “Long-term misdiagnosis and neurologic outcomes of thallium poisoning: A case report and literature review.” Brain and Behavior 11.3 (March 2021): e02032. doi: 10.1002/brb3.2032 CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       

    Hoffman RS. “Thallium toxicity and the role of Prussian blue in therapy.” Toxicological Reviews 22.1 (March 2003): 29-40.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       

    Tjälve H, Henriksson J. “Uptake of metals in the brain via olfactory pathways.” NeuroToxicology 20.2-3 (April-June 1999): 181-195.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Minjares RJ, Walsh M. Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT): A Science and Policy Review. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation): January 2009 CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Olanow CW. “Manganese-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1012.1 (March 2004): 209-223. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Kim G, Lee H-S, Bang JS, Kim B, Ko D, Yang M. “A current review for biological monitoring of manganese with exposure, susceptibility, and response biomarkers.” Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews 33.2 (2015): 229-254. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Ward EJ, Edmondson DA, Nour M, Snyder S, Rosenthal FS, Dydak U. “Toenail manganese: A sensitive and specific biomarker of exposure to manganese in career welders.” Annals of Work Exposures and Health 62.1 (January 2018): 101-111. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       

    Gurol KC, Aschner M, Smith DR, Mukhopadhayay S. “Role of excretion in manganese homeostasis and neurotoxicity: A historical perspective.” American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 322.1 (January 2022): G79-G92.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE

    5.2 Organic Solvents (toluene, xylene, styrene, C2HCl3, C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, CS2)

    Evans EB, Balster RL. “CNS depressant effects of volatile organic solvents.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 15.2 (Summer 1991): 233-241.  CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    van Valen E, van Thriel C, Akila R, Nilson LN, Bast-Pettersen R, Sainio M, van Dijk F, van der Laan G, Verberk M, Wekking E. “Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: European consensus of neuropsychological characteristics, assessment, and guidelines for diagnostics.” NeuroToxicology 33.4 (August 2012): 710-726. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       

    van Valen E, Wekking E, van Hout M, van der Laan G, Hageman G, van Dijk F, de Boer A, Sprangers M. “Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Course and prognosis factors of neuropsychological functioning.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 91.7 (October 2018): 843-858.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE


     
    Guillemin MP, Berode M. “Biological monitoring of styrene: A review.” American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 49.10 (October 1988): 497-505. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Linhart I. “Stereochemistry of styrene biotransformation.” Drug Metabolism Reviews 33.3-4 (August-November 2001): 353-367. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Chiu WA, Okino MS, Lipscomb JC, Evans MV. “Issues in the pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene and its metabolites.” Environmental Health Perspectives 114.9 (September 2006): 1450-1456. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Angerer J, Krämer, A. “Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. XVI. Ambient and biological monitoring of workers exposed to toluene.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 69.2 (December 1996): 91-96. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Rajan ST, Malathi N. “Health hazards of xylene: A literature review.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 82.2 (February 2014): 271-274.  CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Kawai T, Mizunuma K, Yasugi T, Horiguchi S, Uchida Y, Iwami O, Iguchi H, Masayuki I. “Urinary methylhippuric acid isomer levels after occupational exposure to a xylene mixture.” International Archives of Occupational Environmental Health 63.1 (May 1991): 69-75. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Blanc PD. Fake Silk: The Lethal History of Viscose Rayon. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 2016. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Krstev S, Peruničić B, Farkić B, Banićević R. “Neuropsychiatric effects in workers with occupational exposure to carbon disulfide.” Journal of Occupational Health 45.2 (March 2003): 81-87. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Llorens J. “Toxic neurofilamentous axonopathies: Accumulation of neurofilaments and axonal degeneration.” Journal of Internal Medicine 273.5 (May 2013): 478-489.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 

    5.3 Gases (HCN, CO, H2S, ethylene oxide)

    Cooper CE, Brown GC. “The inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase by the gases carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide: Chemical mechanism and physiological significance.” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 40.5 (October 2008): 533-539  CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Ernst A, Zibrak JD. “Carbon monoxide poisoning.” New England Journal of Medicine 339.22 (November 26, 1998): 1603-1608. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Weaver LK. “Carbon monoxide poisoning.” New England Journal of Medicine 360.12 (March 19, 2009): 1217-1225. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Watt S, Prado CE, Crowe SF. “Immediate and delayed neuropsychological effects of carbon monoxide poisoning: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 24.4 (April 2018): 405-415. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Guidotti TL. “Hydrogen sulfide: Advances in understanding human toxicity.” International Journal of Toxicology 29.6 (December 2010): 569-581. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Hirsch AR. “Hydrogen sulfide exposure without loss of consciousness: Chronic effects in four cases.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 18.2 (March 2002): 51-65. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Bryant HE, Visser ND, Yoshida K. “Ethylene oxide sterilizer use and short-term symptoms amongst workers.” Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 39.3 (Autumn 1989): 101-106. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       

    Patch PC, Hartlage LC. “Neurological and emotional sequelae of exposure to ethylene oxide.” International Journal of Neuroscience 106.1-2 (January 2001): 101-107.

    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 

    5.4 Pesticides (organophosphates, carbamates, organochlorines, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids)

    Bosak A, Bavec A, Konte T, Šinko G, Kovarik Z, Goličnik M. “Interactions of Paraoxonase-1 with pharmacologically relevant carbamates.” Molecules 25.1 (January 2020): 211. doi: 10.3390/molecules25010211.  CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    De Bleecker J, Van Den Neucker K, Willems J. “The intermediate syndrome in organophosphate poisoning: Presentation of a case and review of the literature.” Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology 30.3 (1992): 321-329; editorial comment by LM Haddad, 331-332. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Lotti M, Moretto A. “Do carbamates cause polyneuropathy?” Muscle and Nerve 34.4 (October 2006): 499-502. CLICK TO HERE ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Jokanović  M,  Kosanović M, Brkić D, Vukomanović P. “Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy in man: An overview.” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 113.1 (January 2011): 7-10.
    CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Lessenger JE, Reese BE. “Rational use of cholinesterase activity testing in pesticide poisoning.” Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 12.4 (July-August 1999): 307-314.  CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE
       
    Chrustek A, Hołyńska-Iwan I, Dziembowska I, Bogusiewica J, Wróblewski M, Cwynar A, Olszewska-Słonina. “Current research on the safety of pyrethroids used as insecticides.” Medicina (Kaunas) 54.4 (August 2018): 61 doi: 10.3390/medicina54040061. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Costas-Ferreira C, Faro, LRF. “Neurotoxic effects of neonicotinoids on mammals: What is there beyond the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors? A systematic review.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22.16 (August 2021): 8413. doi: 10.3390/ijms22168413. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Phua DH, Lin C, Wu M-L, Deng J-F, Yang C-C. “Neonicotinoid insecticides: An emerging cause of acute pesticide poisoning.” Clinical Toxicology 47.4 (April 2009): 336-341. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 
       
    Lin P-C, Lin H-J, Liao Y-Y, G H-R, Chen K-T. “Acute poisoning with neonicotinoid insecticides: A case report and literature review.” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology 112.4 (April 2013): 282-286. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS ARTICLE 


    ABOUT THE ASSOCIATION

    The Canadian Board of Occupational Medicine was established to “encourage the study, improve the practice and elevate the standards of occupational medicine throughout Canada.” It is incorporated federally to certify competence of those physicians with special knowledge of occupational medicine.

    Physicians interested in applying for certification will find all of the information on eligibility and application on this website.


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